History of Genplan Institute of Moscow
In 1918 several architectural workshops led by known architects A V. Shchusev and I.V. Zholtovsky were created under Moscow Council, owing to their efforts in 1923 the plan “New Moscow” has been developed.
Scales of construction and rates of transformation of Moscow promptly grew. Suburbs with housing for workers have been improved, inhabited quarters have been built, intensive reconstruction and construction of industrial enterprises have been performed, community facilities have been rapidly developed. For these large-scale works a uniting base was necessary, that was the city Master plan. Development of such document demanded reorganization and improvement of the organization of the whole design and planning practices.
For the decision of these problems in 1932 the Architectural and planning committee (Arch-plan) has been created under Presidium of the Executive Committee of the City and Moscow Council. 39 persons, including A.V. Lunatcharsky, V.N. Semenov, A.M. Zaslavsky, N.A. Ladovsky, K.S. Alabyan, B.M. Iofan, A.V. Shchusev, V.A. Shchuko, were its members.
The following stage was formation of Planning Department of Moscow Council in 1933, as well as of 11 planning workshops. S.A. Boldyrev was at the head of the Master plan workshop, G.S. Dukelsky leaded the workshop of Moscow central part, A.A. Galaktionov –the workshop of Moscow Southwestern sector, P.V. Lomazanov – the workshop of Moscow Northwestern sector, I.F. Evstratov - the workshop of Moscow Northeastern sector, D.E. Babenkov - the workshop of the Southeastern sector, A.A. Karkpov - the workshop of forest protecting strips, G.A. Shkabatur - the engineering-transport workshop, M.V. Kuchina – the technical-economic workshop, V.I. Dolganov – the gardening workshop, V.D. Lukyanov - the workshop “Gardens and parks”.
The first Master plan was adopted in 1935. The population of Moscow by this time has made 3641 thousand persons. The main idea of the Master plan was that Moscow is the capital of Soviet Union, and in the future - and capital of the socialism which has won on all planet. So the special emphasis laid on creation and strengthening of the capital functions underlining a political role of Moscow, and restriction of industry growth became one of the fundamental postulates. The Master plan of 1935 has set the general principles of the capital development, as well as mapped a number of immediate town-planning measures.
In 1941 Architectural and planning Department of Moscow Council (AGTU) has been formed. The war has interrupted realization of proposals of the first Master plan, but in 1943 in the structure of AGTU the workshop of Moscow City Master Plan has been recreated. The capital required performance of planning works connected with preparation for restoration and further development of the city economy. A.A. Galaktionov has been appointed as the head of the workshop. In 1945 works on updating of the Southwestern area layout have begun. Simultaneously the proposals for prospective plan of housing construction in Moscow for 1945-1955 have been prepared.
In January, 1947 when the country has celebrated the eight-hundredth anniversary of Moscow, Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted the decision about construction of eight skyscrapers in the city. The work on selection of sites for their building was performed by group of architects of Moscow City Master Plan workshop, composed of S.A. Boldyrev, A.A. Karpov, S.D. Misharin, P.V. Pomazanov, N.N. Ullas, P.F. Evstratov.
For acceleration of rates and increase of quality of a building complex operation a reorganization of town-planning has been spent on the grounds of powerful specialized organizations. On April 6, 1951 there was Decree of Council of Ministers of the USSR “On enlargement of town-planning organizations and liquidation of small design offices” that has been adopted. Similar documents were prepared by Moscow City Executive Committee on May 10, 1951, as well as the Department for Architecture affairs – on May 17, 1951, as a result in June, 1951 the Research and Project Institute of Moscow City Master Plan" (NIiPI Genplana Moskvy) was created.
The ten year reconstruction plan of Moscow serve as the basis for working out by the Institute the various variants of siting, carrying out their comparative technical and economic analysis. On February 01, 1952 the Government of the USSR approved the 1951-1960 Master plan. In the town-planning relation the plan assumed to develop the planning structure of the city, mapped out by the 1935 Master plan adjusted for actuals of the city development. Its design proposals considered the prepared designs of layout of certain areas and results of Moscow reconstruction works. The 1952 Master plan, as well as the previous one, pointed out the necessity to form a protective green zone near the borders of the capital. The idea of construction of a high-class encircling highway along the periphery of the city became absolutely new.
On July 20, 1960 the Council of Ministers of the USSR entrusted the Moscow City Executive Committee with developing the technical and economic bases (feasibility study) of the new Master plan of Moscow. In the course of performance of this task the architects found out a variant of compact development of the city allocating the buildings within the Moscow ring road (MKAD).
In March, 1965 the Institute was assigned to work out the general complex scheme of development of Moscow for the future 30-35 years. In 1966 the Executive committee of Moscow Council together with Moscow Region Executive committee were entrusted with working out the uniform scheme of district layout of Moscow and Moscow Region. In order to perform this task the Institute of Master plan organized the workshop №7. In 1971 the Master plan of development of Moscow, created by a composite author consisting of M.V. Posokhin, N.N. Ullas, S.A. Boldyrev, N.F. Evstratov, R.G. Kaverin, S. M. Matveev, S.D. Misharin, A. V. Sotnikov, Yu.K. Bolbot, I.F. Dremov, L.I. Sorokin, G.N. Fomin, A.G. Yanovsky, was approved.
To the early nineties in connection with the expiry of the 1971 Master plan there has been the requirement to have more proposals for the further development of the city. By order of decision-making authorities it has been prepared the feasibility study of Moscow development for the period till 2010. Having considered this document, the State Examination Commission of the State Planning Committee of the USSR gave an opinion that «an essential shortcoming of the feasibility study of the Master plan is consideration of Moscow within its administrative borders instead of the real national and planning object united by close and various interrelations - the Moscow city agglomeration in unity with Moscow Region». Thus, the feasibility study of the Master plan of Moscow has not been approved, and the feasibility study of Moscow and Moscow Region Master plan failed to be worked out.
In view of the special importance of the new Master plan to determine prospects of development of Moscow and Moscow Region, the State Architecture Committee allowed to carry out its concept with deviation from the instruction ВСН-38-82 and approved proposals for structure and composition of this document.
The consideration of the draft of the Master plan of development of Moscow and Moscow Region revealed insufficient effectiveness of designing practice for development of the largest territorial formations. The matter is that during this period the projects used to be implemented by means of administrative control levers. The work on the concept of the Master plan was recommended for continuing with an allowance for remarks passed as a result of examination and in the course of professional discussion.
In 1991-1992 the Institute of Master plan prepared “Guidelines of town-planning development of the city of Moscow and Moscow Region for the period till 2010”. In 1993 the Moscow Government and the Administration of Moscow Region approved this document by the joint decision. The document contained the principles and priorities oriented towards actual international experience of town-planning development of Moscow and reflecting the fundamental transformation of the state and society. The concept of new Master plan of development of Moscow till 2020 considered the radical changes which have taken place in all spheres of life of the country and its capital. This document became the real step to the third millennium. In 1999 the Moscow Government approved the draft. To that time the situation in the city has considerably changed in comparison with the early nineties. The country has implemented the large-scale social and investment programs, strove to maintain high volumes of housing, public and business construction were supported, to put into operation new transport systems, to revive historical centre of Moscow.
For the first time in practice of town-planning of our country the project of the Master plan of development of Moscow before its approval has been submitted for consideration of Muscovites. Results of public and professional discussion became the basis for improvement of the project which after approval by the Moscow Government was brought in the Moscow City Duma for enactment of the law “On the Master plan of development of the city of Moscow”.
In 2005 the new Town-planning code of the Russian Federation and in 2008 the Town-planning code of the city of Moscow has come into force. According to requirements of the new legislation the Institute of Moscow City Master Plan developed the project of the actualized Master plan of the city of Moscow which in 2010 was approved by the Law of the city of Moscow “On the Master plan of the city of Moscow”.
Since July 01, 2012 on the grounds of the enactment of the Federation Council of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the territory of Moscow has increased 2,5 times. Its borders became to include almost 150 thousand hectares of the territory of Moscow Region. The increase in the area of the megalopolis served as an impulse for revision of fundamental principles of its town-planning policy and strategy of spatial development. Now the Institute of Moscow City Master Plan seeks to arrive at a solution of this problem, based on tradition of Moscow town-planning school, considering the achievements of domestic and foreign town-planning accumulated in results of the 2012 International competition for working out the Concept of development of Moscow agglomeration.